CH05 Nutrition for management of Health & Lifestyle conditions - Part 2


Over or undernutrition is one of the many reasons that can lead you away from your ideal weight. Healthy balanced nutrition along with adequate physical activity can help you achieve ideal weight.

3 important things needed for ideal weight management

  1. BMR
  2. Daily Calorie Intake
  3. Calculate the daily requirement and make a scientific weight loss or gain plan

What is ideal?

Knowing what your ideal body weight (IBW) is not difficult. An easy formula is to subtract 100 from your height in cms.

For an easy understanding…Say, your height is 167 cm, your IBW shall be 67 kg.

What is Body Mass Index?

You may have often heard about this term BMI. Body Mass Index is a value that helps you screen the weight category. Currently, there are 4 weight categories

  • Normal 18.5 – 24.9
  • Underweight below 18.5
  • Overweight 25 – 29.9
  • Obese 30 and above

How different is it from BMR? Basal Metabolic Rate is the minimum amount of energy/calorie required by the body to maintain life at complete physical and mental rest. It typically accounts for ~65-75% of total daily calorie expenditure.

Did You Know?

We have to cut at least 500kcal from our daily diet to lose ½ Kg body weight per week.

For effective weight management it is also good to measure your WHR. Waist to Hip Ratio is an effective tool that helps to know how much fat is accumulated in waist and hips.

3 simple steps to calculate WHR

  • Step 1 Measure your waist circumference
  • Step 2 Measure Hip circumference
  • Step 3 Divide waist circumference by your hip circumference to achieve WHR 

The proposed cutoffs by the WHO for the WHR are ≥ 0.90 cm in men and ≥ 0.85 cm in women to identify a significantly increased risk of metabolic complications.

Tips to promote weight management

For Weight Loss

  • Modification of your normal diet, with portion control.
  • Restrict on carbonated beverages.
  • Make your diet fibre rich. Include whole grains, fruits, green leafy vegetables, sprouts and lentils.
  • Start your meals with salads.
  • Make your daily diet low fat. Limit deep fried foods, choose healthy fats such omega 3 & 6 from nuts and seeds.
  • Eat all your meals on time & avoid skipping any meals.
  • Read nutrition labels to avoid intake of invisible fats.
  • Along with moderate diet, daily moderate exercise will help achieve weight loss.
  • Brisk walk for 30 mins or exercise moderately for 45-60 mins daily.

For Weight Gain

  • Include foods which are energy dense/high calories.
  • Eat all your meals on time & avoid skipping any meals.
  • Balance portion size by increasing serving size of the meal.
  • Include healthy fats from nuts, seeds and lean meat.
  • Include regular light exercise to stimulate hunger.



PCOS/PCOD are one of the most common disorders in women. Lifestyle management involving diet and exercise helps manage the condition.

Poly Cystic Ovarian Disorder (PCOD)  is caused by hormonal disbalance and causes the release of immature eggs which later develop into cysts.

Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is metabolism disorder of the endocrine system, it causes release of male sex hormone androgen which causes difficulty in the monthly release of egg.

 Signs to look out for!

Some known causes

  • Stress
  • Unhealthy diets
  • Excess insulin
  • Excess production of male hormone.
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Overweight or obesity

Risks involved: PCOS if left untreated or unmanaged can lead to risks of developing type 2 diabetes due to insulin resistance

How would your doctor identify PCOS?

Your gynecologist may look for these 3 symptoms

  1. High amounts of male sex hormone – androgens
  2. Presence of Polycystic ovaries
  3. Irregular menstrual cycles

In most cases, when 2 out of these 3 symptoms are detected, your gynecologist is likely to diagnose you with PCOS

Nutritional Management

  • Choose low calorie foods to maintain healthy weight/attain weight loss
  • Choose complex carbohydrates and low GI foods.
  • To prevent vitamin D deficiency, consume fortified foods
  • To combat the disbalance of hormones, include phytoestrogenic foods in your diet such as soy, flax seeds, sesame seeds, berries, rice bran etc.



Menopause is a term that describes the cessation of menstrual cycle in a woman's life. It is the time that begins when there has been absence of periods for over 12 months.

Perimenopause: It is the period of transition towards menopause. Generally, begins 10-12 years before menopause where the ovaries gradually start producing less eggs.


  • Hot Flashes
  • Mood Swings
  • Insomnia
  • Vaginal Dryness
  • Bone Loss
  • Weight Gain

Osteoporosis & Menopause

The risk of osteoporosis increases with the onset of menopause, as there is a decline in estrogen. This increases the risk of fractures and injuries. Good amount of Calcium and Vitamin D must be included in daily diet through dark green leafy vegetables, eggs and dairy.

Tips to manage good health at menopausal stage

  • Eat well balanced diet, without skipping any meals.
  • Eat at small, frequent intervals.
  • Include whole grains, lean proteins, vegetables and fruits in your daily diet.
  • To manage hot flashes, limit or reduce the intake of caffeine and spicy foods.
  • Limit the intake of sodium.
  • Drink adequate amount of water.
  • Engage in moderate physical activity for at least 30 minutes of the day.



Immunity is the body’s capacity to fight against various infections. Nutrition is one of the most important approach that will help strengthen your immunity. Various nutrients play active role in supporting your immune system.

  • Vitamin A: Protects against inflammation and supports immune systems development. Some of the good sources include green leafy vegetables and yellow-orange fruits & vegetables.
  • Vitamin C: Essential antioxidant that helps protect against damages of oxidative stress. Amla, citrus fruits, guava etc., are some of the rich sources.
  • Vitamin E: Protects against the harmful effects of oxidation. Nuts, oil seeds, whole grains are some of its good sources.
  • Zinc: It is an antioxidant and decreases risk of infections. Found in eggs, dairy products, almonds, beans etc.
  • Selenium: Powerful antioxidant that helps support immune responses. Whole grains, sea foods and dairy products are some of its sources.
  • Iron: Deficiency leads to increased risk of infections. Some of the sources include, dark green leafy vegetables, ragi, liver etc.

Tips on enhancing immunity

  • Eat all meals on time and include foods rich in nutrients that support immunity.
  • Practice good hygiene etiquettes including regular handwash.
  • Keep your surroundings clean & hygienic.
  • Engage in moderate physical activity which helps modulate functioning of immune cells.