CH05 Nutrition for management of Health & Lifestyle conditions- Part 1
Diabetes or Diabetes Mellitus is a disorder that occurs due to high blood sugar levels. It is one of the leading causes of death in the world
What are the different types?
Type 1 Diabetes
Occurs due to lack of insulin production. Type 1 diabetes can be caused when the body’s immune system destroys the pancreatic cells that produce insulin. It can be a genetic or environmental factor, the exact cause of which is unknown.
Type 2 Diabetes
Occurs due to insufficient use of insulin. It is caused by many factors including genetic and lifestyle factors, such as:
- Family history
- Age (Chances increase with age)
- Certain medicines
- Pregnancy (Gestational diabetes), etc.
- Excess intake of sugar
SIGNS TO LOOK OUT FOR!
The 3 P’s
- Polyuria Frequent urination
- Polydipsia Feeling very thirsty
- Polyphagia Feeling hungry frequently
Other symptoms may also include unintended weight loss, slow healing of wounds & blurred vision.
Diagnosis: Diabetes can be diagnosed by testing blood glucose levels in fasting and 2 hours after food consumption and other criteria called HbA1C.
Know the Normal!
Healthy tips for diabetes management
- Manage both the type and quantity of carbohydrates. Limit the amount simple sugars.
- Choose foods with low Glycemic Index (GI) and High Fiber.
- Include foods rich in minerals such as calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc an antioxidant such as Vitamin C & E.
- Avoid fasting or feasting
- Include small frequent meals such as Fibre rich snacks in between all main meals.
- To avoid the risk of obesity it is important to control the intake of saturated and trans fats.
- Include healthy fats such omega 3 & 6 in your daily diet.
- Engage in light to moderate exercise for a minimum of 30 minutes
2. CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a general term for conditions affecting the heart or blood vessels.
Heart attacks and strokes are mainly caused by a blockage that prevents blood from flowing to the heart or brain.
The most common reason for this is a build-up of fatty deposits on the inner walls of the blood vessels that supply the heart or brain.
Common symptoms of CVD
Often, there are no symptoms of the underlying disease of the blood vessels. A heart attack or stroke may be the first sign of underlying disease.
Symptoms of a heart attack include:
Pain or discomfort in the center of the chest; and/or the arms, the left shoulder, elbows, jaw, or back. The most common symptom of a stroke is sudden weakness of the face, arm, or leg, most often on one side of the body.
Modifiable Risk Factors
- Physical inactivity
- Elevated LDL levels
- Low HDL levels
Non-Modifiable Rish Factors
- Age (older than 45 years for men, 55 years for women)
- Family history
Two important health issues related to CVD are:
1. HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA: Hypercholesterolemia can be defined as the presence of high plasma cholesterol levels.
What is Cholesterol?
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that our body needs for good health, but in the right amounts. Unhealthy levels of cholesterol can lead to a condition called high blood cholesterol.
Cholesterol in our blood is carried on lipoproteins:
- Low-density lipoprotein (LDL),also called “bad” cholesterol
- High-density lipoprotein (HDL), also called “good” cholesterol
Unsaturated fats are good for health as it lowers LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol whereas saturated fats raise both good and bad cholesterol levels thereby increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Nutritional tips for prevention of CVD
- Eating more fruits & vegetables
- Having a Balanced diet
- Maintain a healthy weight
- Reduced alcohol intake
- Follow a dietary pattern that” includes good fats”, “limits saturated fats” and “keep trans-fat as low as possible"
2. HYPERTENSION: One of the most common disorders of Heart health, Hypertension or High Blood pressure occurs when the blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg.
Signs to look out for
Risk Factors: Certain risk factors involved with hypertension can be modifiable. It would not be wrong to say that the health of your heart is in your hands!
Risks that can be controlled
- Sedentary lifestyle/Obesity/Overweight
- Unhealthy high fat diet
Risks out of your control
- Family history
- Co-existing disease.
One of the main modifiable food factors responsible for hypertension is excess salt intake.
WHO recommends an intake of 5g per day & usage of sodium replacers for prevention of Hypertension.
Nutrition & Hypertension
Lifestyle modification is one the important ways to manage hypertension. It should include reduction in weight, dietary sodium restriction, following DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) diet and regular physical activity.
According to DASH the following diet may bring about a healthy reduction in blood pressure:
- High amount of fruit and vegetables
- Inclusion of fish
- Inclusion of low-fat milk
- Reducing the overall fat intake
- Reducing sodium
For better management say NO to:
- Extra salt at the table
- Pickles and canned foods as they are preserved with salt
- Salted butter
A condition in which the person may have lower number of red blood cells or lower concentration of hemoglobin.
Signs to look out for
Craving to chew on Ice? Excessive feeling of cold?
These can be signs of iron deficiency anaemia!
What causes it?
Anaemia can be caused by either due to deficiencies or chronic factors. Red blood cell (RBC) is the most important factor in anaemia. It contains hemoglobin that helps carry oxygen throughout the body.
At more risk! There are certain sections of people that need extra precautions as they can be at more risk of anaemia
- Pregnant women
- Teenage girls and Adult women
- Diabetic individuals
Tips to help manage and prevent Anaemia
- Eat a healthy balanced diet without skipping meals
- Ensure good intake of iron with dark green leafy vegetables, beans, lean meat etc.
- Include Vitamin C in daily diet, it helps absorb iron and is found in citric fruits, broccoli, guava etc.
- Avoid consuming coffee and tea with meals as it may hinder iron absorption.
4. BONE & JOINT PAINS
Bone is the connective tissue of our body that is mainly composed of calcium. It helps us with movements and other functions and must be taken care of with good diet and exercise.
It is important to take care of the bones by eating a healthy balanced diet with Vitamin D, Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphate, Vitamin K etc. , and engaging in regular physical activity. Deficiencies in these nutrients, growing age, lack of exercise and trauma can cause the bones to become weak and increases the risk of bone and joints related disorders.
- OSTEOPOROSIS: In this condition the bones become weak and fragile and are more prone to injuries and fractures. Women are more at risk for osteoporosis as low estrogen levels due to menopause accelerates the bone loss.
- RICKETS & OSTEOMALACIA: Rickets and osteomalacia: Vitamin D deficiency in children causes them to have bowed lower limbs known as rickets. In adults, it leads to osteomalacia that causes the bone to have poor mineralization with increased fracture risk and bone pain.
- GOUT:This bone disorder is caused by deposition of sodium urate crystals in bone joints and causes acute inflammatory response. Some of the risk factors include obesity, high intake of uric acid, excess alcohol consumption and heredity.
- CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME: This bone disorder occurs when the median nerve in the wrist is compressed. It may also be caused by repetitive flexion and extension of wrist joint, for example prolonged use of keyboard. Some of the actions that may help prevent is taking breaks from repetitive activities and avoid frequent flexing of wrists.
The peak bone strength is achieved by 35 years.
After the age of 40 the bone density decreases, minimizing the replacement of bone tissues & increasing the risk of Osteoporosis
Tips to maintain healthy bones and joints
- Include green leafy vegetables, nuts, egg, fish etc. as they contain good amounts of calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K.
- Include good amount of protein from milk and milk products, beans, lentils, lean meat, eggs etc.
- Consume a glass of milk every day. It is a rich source of calcium and will help meet your daily calcium needs
- Exercise daily as they help thicken and strengthen the bones, lack of exercise makes the bone thin and light making them prone to injuries.
- Let your skin expose to sunlight for about 10-15 mins. It helps activate Vitamin D in your body.
- National Health Portal of India
- National AYUSH Mission
- National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and kidney diseases
- Anaemia- WHO
- Hypertension- WHO
- Cardiovascular Disease- WHO
- Srilakshmi, B. (2002). Dietetics (Revised. New age international publication.
- Sergio Martinez-Hervas, Juan F. Ascaso, Hypercholesterolemia, Editor(s): Ilpo Huhtaniemi, Luciano Martini, Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases (Second Edition), Academic Press, 2019, Pages 320-326, ISBN 9780128122006.
- Ortho info by American Academy of Orthopaedic surgeons
- Blood Cholesterol- NIH
- Food for Healthy Bones- NHS